What are Body Hormones?

What are Body Hormones?

Body hormones are the chemical substances that are made in different glands of our body. These are called endocrine glands. The primary task of these complex molecules is to help transfer signals from one nerve cell to another or from a nerve cell to a target organ. So these hormones are the messengers which send information about your body among different organs.

Different glands in our body that produce these hormones are ovaries, testicles, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, pineal gland, pituitary gland, and hypothalamus. The central role of the pituitary gland, which is a tiny organ about the size of a pea, is to secrete certain hormones, mostly releasing growth hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone.

The pituitary gland sends its signals to the hypothalamus, which in turn sends signals to other glands.

What is stress?

Stress is an environmental factor that disturbs an organism’s usual way of life or homeostasis (a stable internal environment). The stress response is a mechanism employed by an organism’s body when there’s a threatening condition. It helps us to sense the danger then act appropriately towards it.

So stress may be psychological or physical. For example, you are afraid of your boss at the workplace; if yes, it is psychological stress, but sometimes you overeat food like someone doing binge eating or bulimia nervosa; this is physical stress on your body.

Why does the body produce stress hormones?

The body has a complex system that allows it to detect and respond to environmental stimuli that could be potentially harmful. If one of these systems detects risk or danger, it triggers the “stress” response, which helps us react appropriately. In simple words, we can say that stress is just an alarm signal from our body due to some external negative influence caused by anything physical or psychological on our mind.

There are two types of stressors:

physical and mental, both have different effects on the brain and the hormone levels in our blood system. When any psycho-social stimulus disturbs our homeostasis, it first induces a general alarm reaction in the body. Then it activates a specific response which varies according to different types of stressors.

As discussed earlier, stress is an alarm signal from our body due to some external influence on the mind and creates an adverse effect on maintaining homeostasis. In this time, our body produces specific complicated molecules to face this stressful situation.

These chemical messengers are known as “hormones,” the primary function of these hormones is to help transfer signals from one nerve cell (called neuroendocrine cells) to another or from a nerve cell (neurological) brain region called the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus stimulates other glands or organs by releasing different hormones, resulting in the arousal of specific responses like increased heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar.

Types of stress hormones:

Glucocorticoids:

these hormones increase the blood sugar level, which is very important for energy production in the body to respond to any threat stimulus. The secretion of cortisol reaches its peak within 30 minutes after a physical or mental stressor. Medical students have higher cortisol levels compared to other students; this could be due to their stressful medical school life.

Cortisol also increases immunity by activating macrophages that destroy harmful cells in our body like viruses or bacteria etc. Hormones also play an essential role in maintaining homeostasis in pregnancy. If a woman does not produce enough cortisol during her pregnancy, it could lead to serious health problems in the fetus.

Catecholamines:

These hormones play a crucial role in physical and mental stress and are also involved in the flight-or-fight response and other reactions like increasing blood sugar and heart rate.

Adrenaline (also called epinephrine) is mainly secreted under physically stressful conditions to increase our body’s ability to respond, while noradrenaline (norepinephrine) increases heart rate and makes us feel alert or awake during times of mental stress like fear or pressure.

Many studies have shown that individuals who are more anxious due to excess production of adrenaline release higher hormone levels than others.

How many hormones are in the human body:

On this page, you can find information about how many hormones are in the human body. There are several definitions of hormones, like the substance produced in one part of an organism and carried by the blood to other factors.

A chemical messenger from a cell or group of cells to another part of the organism; is also defined as a substance that regulates bodily processes in mammals and humans. Hormones in the human body play a significant role in controlling our physiology and endocrine system.

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There are too many hormones in the human body according to the different definitions which we applied above. Still, here we will mention major hormones which we mainly found in every type of living creature’s body, including humans such as Alcohol, Aldosterone, Cholesterol, Estradiol, Estriol, Estrogens, Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Free Testosterone, Glucagon, Human Growth Hormone (HGH), Insulin, Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and many more you can find of the list below.

Human body hormones:

The endocrine system comprises several glands that produce about 80 different types of hormones to perform critical biological functions like metabolism management, cell growth, and division; tissue function; sensory perception; reproduction; pregnancy; the development of the fetus in its mother’s womb, etc.

Cortisol produces during stress or low blood glucose levels. It stimulates gluconeogenesis which is a process of synthesizing glucose from non-glucose carbon substrates. It also enables the release of glucose from liver glycogen stores. Cortisol inhibits protein synthesis and breakdown of fat, stimulates the breakdown of fats into fatty acids, inhibits gluconeogenesis.

Bio-chemical processes in the human body produce various types of hormones responsible for different physiological activities in human beings. TFor example, thesehormones are responsible for reproduction, digestion, circulation, etc.

As more than 80 types of hormones are found in the human body, it becomes complex to find an exact number on this page. Still, we will try our best to provide you with correct information according to current knowledge about body hormones.

Hormones found in human bodies:

Cortisone is a steroid hormone produced by the cortex of the adrenal gland. Cortisone is a general term for the cortex hormones, which control protein metabolism, regulate salt and water balances, and influence the body’s response to injury, allergies, and inflammation.

Cortisone and cortisol are the two central glucocorticoids that help regulate or control metabolism and inflammatory responses.

list of female hormones:

Estrogens are the primary female sex hormone. It is secreted by ovaries in female mammals and by the placenta in pregnant humans. Estrogen is responsible for developing sexual characteristics in women, but it also has essential functions in men. Other types of estrogens are Estriol, Estetrol, and Estrone.

Estrogen is associated with physical changes like breast development, softer skin, etc., emotional changes like increased libido, mental changes like increased memory and concentration ability, etc.

It acts as a growth factor in various human body tissues, namely bones, liver, kidney, skin, etc., as estrogen stimulates the secretion of bone-building cells. Hence, it helps prevent osteoporosis, which is the thinning of bones with age or after menopause.

Chorionic gonadotropin (CG), formerly known as luteinizing hormone (LH), is produced by the placenta after implantation and stimulates progesterone production by the corpus luteum (the temporary endocrine structure formed within the ovary that produces essential hormones for supporting early pregnancy).

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin also stimulates the secretion of estrogens by granulosa cells of ovarian follicles. Thus, it plays an essential role in extending gestation, preventing menstruation, and facilitating breast development during puberty in females.

Hormones function:

Hormones are chemical messengers which regulate cellular activity through their interactions with target cells. Thus, they control all the activities of the human body. For example, they control moods, appetite, heart rate, breathing, etc.

There are two types of hormones:

Ectopics:

These are produced by one organ and released into another organ. Next, these are released into the bloodstream, which is carried by the bloodstream to affect distant organs or tissues.

 Endocronics:

These are produced mainly by the endocrine glands, e.g., adrenal gland, thyroid gland, ovary, etc. Then these are released directly into the bloodstream without passing through another organ or tissue.

These hormones can be corticosteroids, androgenic steroids, and the female sex steroid progesterone.

The primary function or action of Corticosterone is to help in carbohydrate metabolism, i.e., it stimulates the liver to release glucose into the bloodstream, which is very valuable for fighting stress or during fasting.

This hormone affects some essential things like water balance, lipid metabolism, etc. It also regulates blood pressure, blood volume, electrolyte concentrations, e.g., sodium, potassium, calcium ion concentration. It also controls heart rate, heart contractility, vasoconstriction, vasodilation, or dilation of blood veins.

Cortisol has a high glucocorticoid effect, and it reduces protein synthesis and increases glycogen breakdown. It also stimulates gluconeogenesis which breaks down proteins into glucose to produce more energy for the body cells.

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