What is Lymphatic Cancer?

What is Lymphatic Cancer?

Lymphatic cancer is a type of cancer found in lymph nodes, which are an important part of the body’s immune system. There are several types of lymphatic cancer – Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (also called NHL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and small lymphocytic leukemia (SLL). The disease begins when cells begin to grow abnormally in the tissues where they normally reside or in nearby areas.

Over time, these abnormal cells can invade nearby tissues and eventually spread throughout the body. Cancer experts classify cancers into 2 main groups based on how quickly the condition may spread: slow-growing and fast-growing. Lymphatic cancer falls within the “slow-growing” group. The majority of lymphatic cancers are fast-growing.

What causes lymphatic cancer?

The exact cause of most types of lymphatic cancer is unknown. However, certain risk factors may increase a person’s chance of developing lymphatic cancer. In some cases, a person with an inherited genetic mutation is more likely to develop the disease. Researchers have linked changes in certain genes to about 5 to 10 percent of non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases and a slightly higher percentage of Hodgkin lymphoma cases.

It’s not clear how these gene changes increase the risk for this type of cancer, though research suggests that it may play a role in what causes one type of blood cell to turn into another.

Other possible causes include:

Exposure to certain types of chemicals, such as pesticides and herbicides Occupational exposure to specific toxins in various professions, including the rubber industry and the metal industry Exposure to radiation at a young age Radiation treatment for other cancers Uncontrolled or long-term alcohol use Smoking

How common is lymphatic cancer?

In 2013, about 72,000 new cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma were diagnosed. In the same year, about 19,000 people were diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma. It’s been estimated that there will be around 38,200 deaths from NHL during 2015 in the United States alone.

Lymphatic cancer accounts for less than 1 percent of all cancers in both men and women. However, because it often causes few symptoms or signs, people with lymphatic cancer sometimes go undiagnosed for several months to years. Furthermore, the long-term effects of late diagnosis and treatment can be severe.

How is Hodgkin Lymphoma diagnosed?

Diagnosing Hodgkin lymphoma requires a thorough evaluation by a doctor who specializes in treating this type of cancer, such as an oncologist (a medical oncologist). The first step is usually a physical exam and medical history.

If your doctor suspects that you might have lymphatic cancer, he/she may order blood tests and certain imaging tests to help determine if it’s located in more than one part of the body. Imaging Tests: Imaging tests use x-rays, sound waves, and other technologies to create pictures of the body’s internal organs and structures.

Imaging tests include Chest x-ray:

A diagnostic test that uses invisible, X-ray radiation to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film. Computed tomography (CT or CAT scan): A special imaging technique used to create cross-sectional images (often called slices), both horizontally and vertically, on a computer monitor. A CT scan will usually provide more information than an MRI because it allows for better visualization of soft tissue detail.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI):

A noninvasive procedure that uses a combination of large magnets, radiofrequencies, and a computer to produce detailed images of organs and structures within the body. MRI may be used to detect areas of the body that are more susceptible to cancers. For example, MRI may show abnormal masses in the lymph nodes, which are common with Hodgkin lymphoma.

Lymph node biopsy:

A procedure in which a sample of the suspicious tissue is removed from one or more lymph nodes for examination under a microscope by an expert pathologist (a physician who specializes in diagnosing disease). A biopsy helps distinguish between types of cancer and also helps determine if cancer has spread to nearby tissues or organ

symptoms of lymphoma in females:

1. unexplained weight loss

2. fever that comes and goes without an obvious cause

3. feeling full before you eat

4. pain in your abdomen or leg veins, which may be itchy purple bruises

5. swollen lymph nodes in your armpits, groin, or neck

6. toxic feeling during the early stages of infection

7. fever and cold hands and feet for more than 3 weeks with no other obvious cause

8. night sweats for two weeks with no known reason

9. chest pain that lasts for more than 10 minutes without an easy explanation such as heavy exercise or alcohol use

10. coughing up blood or sputum dark brown phlegm tar-like material from your lungs for three months

11 .painless abdominal tumor that does not go away with treatment and is not due to cancer (if it is large protuberance then it may be simple fatty tissue covering the liver)

12. a sudden increase in abdominal swelling for more than 3 weeks with no known reason

13. unexplained weight loss for four months or longer

14. fever that lasts more than two days with high temperatures without an easy explanation such as alcohol use, infection, or exercise

15. pain in your upper abdomen or groin area that does not go away for more than 2 weeks

​​​​16 .painless vaginal tumor that does not go away with treatment and is not due to cancer (if it is large protuberance then it may be simple fatty tissue covering the bladder)

17. discomforting lump in the upper abdomen

18. repeated vomiting accompanied by headaches and body aches after eating a variety of foods

19. coughing up blood or sputum that looks like rust (if large blood amounts are present then iron deficiency anemia is possible)

20. repeated skin infections, such as cellulitis of the legs, abscesses in your mouth or nose, or shingles on your trunk or face

21 .dry coughs for more than 3 weeks with no other obvious cause (if you have lung cancer then it will be difficult to find a resemblance between breast and lung cancer)

22. night sweats for two weeks with no known reason

23. paleness of the white part of your eyes ​​​​

24 .pain in your upper abdomen that gets worse when you eat food but goes away after vomiting without any known cause

25 .unexplained swelling of your upper arms and legs

B cell lymphoma:

It is a type of cancer that originates in the lymphatic system, which is part of the immune system. B cells are white blood cells that develop from bone marrow and make antibodies to fight infections. The lymphatic system is part of the circulatory system, which carries white blood cells throughout the body.

The primary areas for B cell lymphoma are the lymph nodes. This disease often spreads to other parts of the body, including bone marrow, liver, spleen, and skin. If not treated in time,b cell lymphoma may result in death. Lymphomas might be non-Hodgkin’s type (NHL) or Hodgkin’s disease (HD).

lymphoma prognosis:

Even though the exact cause of lymphoma is not known, some risk factors may include aging, exposure to radiation or chemicals, infections (such as HIV), immune system problems (especially autoimmune disorders), and family genes.

This disease can be difficult to treat with chemotherapy treatments because the white blood cells are resistant to it which leads to recovering from treatment quickly. The five-year survival rate for B cell lymphoma is 65%. More than 90% of patients who have a stem cell transplant stay in remission.

B Cell Lymphoma prognosis depends a lot on what stage your cancer is when you first receive treatment. If it’s at a later stage, then your chances of survival are not that great.

Most patients with B cell lymphoma die within five years after diagnosis. If the cancer is found right away and treated immediately (called early stage), then your prognosis is much better. You’ll receive many different treatments to destroy or kill cancer cells in your body.

Types of lymphoma:

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) is one of the most common forms of cancer in adults. It results from uncontrolled proliferation and/or accumulation of lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell that normally helps protect you from infection.

Two types of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas are indolent and aggressive. The first kind tends to progress very slowly, but may recur many times. The second kind typically progresses rapidly and can be more difficult to treat. These cancers sometimes behave similarly after they spread throughout the body, so it isn’t easy for doctors to know what stage they’re at based on symptoms alone.

Nasal cavity Lymphoma:

Lymphoma is a cancer of the blood cells. When lymphoma develops in the nasal cavity, it is called nasal cavity lymphoma.

It may be difficult to diagnose nasal cavity lymphoma because the symptoms are often similar to those of other conditions. The first signs of this cancer include nosebleeds, foul-smelling discharge from your nose, sinus infections, and blockage of one side of your nose.

Sinuses are hollow cavities within your skull that contain mucous membranes lined with cilia (tiny hair-like structures) that help keep them clear. Treatment for nasal cavity lymphoma consists mainly of chemotherapy or radiotherapy given together with corticosteroids.

Surgery can sometimes be necessary if there are complications such as infection or obstruction due to enlarged adenoids at the back of the throat. Radiation therapy is not commonly used to treat nasal cavity lymphoma because it can damage your sense of smell, which helps you taste food and detects odors in the environment.

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