The Nurse Would Encourage Clients With Prehypertension To Follow What Type Of Diet?
a) Higher fiber, lower fat diet
b) Moderate sodium, low-fat diet
c) High potassium, high carbohydrate diet
d) Low sodium, high carbohydrate diet
a) Higher fiber, lower-fat diet:
The nurse would recommend a higher-fiber, lower-fat diet to prehypertension clients. This person needs to avoid saturated fats to decrease blood pressure levels. The nurse would also encourage ingestion of foods high in potassium and low in sodium. This type of diet will assist in preventing long-term issues with hypertension.
c) High potassium, high carbohydrate diet:
The nurse should recommend that the client eat foods rich in potassium and carbohydrates but low in sodium because these are helpful foods that reduce blood pressure levels. Foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, yogurt, pasta are all great sources of potassium. Foods such as deli meats, certain fish, bacon are high in sodium.
d) Low sodium, high carbohydrate diet:
A low-sodium diet would not be recommended because it can adversely affect blood pressure levels. People with prehypertension need to reduce their current sodium level to prevent long-term problems with hypertension, but they should also increase potassium intake and include low glycemic index foods.
High-fiber foods that are rich in potassium aid in the reduction of blood pressure. Foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and pasta are all great sources of potassium; minerals like calcium or magnesium help counteract the negative effect of increased sodium intake.
The nurse is teaching a client how to take his diltiazem which instruction would be most appropriate:
a) take the tablet and rinse with water immediately after taking
b) take the tablet and wait at least 30 mins before rinsing
c) the tablet should be swallowed whole, without water
d) it is not necessary to rinse after taking this medication
ANSWER: c) the tablet should be swallowed whole, without water.
CRITICAL THINKING AID: This question would be tough to answer without knowing when the client is supposed to take this medication. Therefore CRITICAL THINKING (CT) skills are required not to pick AB or CD.
Since choice C is an instruction about how the medication should be taken and does not mention if it is before meals or after meals, CT is required to ascertain what time the client will be taking his medication.
If you think that he will probably take it before meals, then choice B makes more sense since rinsing after a meal will mean having an empty stomach for at least 30 mins which might mean that the medication will not be fully absorbed into the system. If you think that he might take it after meals, then AB or CD makes more sense since they are about taking the medication before/after meals, respectively.
Key behavioral determinants of blood pressure are related to what factor:
a) Body size and genetic factors related to salt re-absorption
b) Overeating and lack of physical activity, which results in an excessive intake of sodium
c) Activity level and food choices, such as unprocessed or minimally processed foods
d) Stress and caffeine consumption, resulting in elevated serum cortisol levels