How Much Trans Fat Is Recommended In The Diet Quizlet
There is no official recommended amount of trans fat in the diet, as there is no known safe level. However, the American Heart Association (AHA) recommends consuming as little trans fat as possible. This means aiming for less than 2 grams per day if you eat a 2,000-calorie diet.
While it is essential to limit your intake of trans fat, it is also necessary to make sure you are getting enough healthy fats in your diet. Some good sources of healthy fats include nuts, seeds, olive oil, and avocados.
It can be tricky to avoid trans fat altogether, as it is found in many processed foods. However, by reading food labels and being aware of which foods contain trans fat, you can make sure to avoid them.
Trans fat is a type of unsaturated fat found in some processed foods and is unhealthy for your heart health. The American Heart Association recommends consuming less than 2 grams per day if you eat a 2000-calorie diet.
It’s essential to limit your intake of trans fat and make sure you’re getting enough healthy fats from sources like nuts, seeds, olive oil, and avocados. By reading food labels and being aware of which foods contain trans fat, you can make sure to avoid them.
To utilize protein for energy, the amine group is removed:
the power in ATP is then used to drive either the synthesis of glucose or fat, whichever one requires the most amount of energy to produce. This means that all amino acids can be converted to glucose via gluconeogenesis.
Still, not ALL amino acids can be used directly for energy (notably phenylalanine and tyrosine, which are both hydroxylated by phenylalanine hydroxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase, respectively, before entering the citric acid cycle).
Some amino acids are “ketogenic,” meaning they can be used for ketone synthesis because their carbon skeletons (e.g., pyruvate) can enter into the TCA cycle directly (without conversion to oxaloacetate); these amino acids’ carbon skeletons, through reactions catalyzed by the PDH complex and the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), can enter TCA cycle in the form of acetyl-CoA.
Ketogenic amino acids: leucine, lysine, isoleucine, valine (= Phe + Leu), phenylalanine, tyrosine; ketogenic amino acids are essential (i.e., humans cannot synthesize them): threonine, methionine. Note that Phe hydroxylation into tyrosine occurs in the liver only when required.
which of the following is not a primary function of protein in the human body:
A. structural support of cells
B. transport of molecules in the blood plasma
C. storage of nutrients for later use by the body
D. energy supply when carbohydrate is temporarily unavailable
the answer is D. protein does not provide an immediate energy source to the body but must first be converted into glucose or ketone bodies via gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis before being used as an energy source; thus, C is incorrect because protein can serve this role by temporary storage of amino acids in muscle or fatty tissue when dietary intake exceeds daily needs or during periods between meals/meals when there are no readily available carbohydrates to utilize for energy.
B may be correct if you think of hemoglobin, a transport protein in the blood plasma; however, many other proteins fulfill this function as well. A is not incorrect, but it is not a primary protein function in humans.
Nuts are a good source of Quizlet:
glucose and fatty acids can be synthesized from:
A. amino acid oxidation only
B. amino acid oxidation + glycolysis
C. glycolysis only
D. glycolysis + pentose phosphate pathway (I don’t know what the pentose phosphate pathway is… I assume it’s either C or D)
the answer is B, amino acid oxidation + glycolysis; proteins are first degraded into amino acids via proteolytic cleavage; some of these amino acids can then be converted to glucose and utilized for energy while others cannot and must first undergo gluconeogenesis before being used as an energy source; thus A is incorrect.
C is incorrect because glycolysis occurs in the cytosol only. D is wrong because the pentose phosphate pathway has nothing to do with the synthesis of glucose or fatty acids; it is a metabolic pathway that produces NADPH (a reducing agent) and ribose-5-phosphate (used for nucleotide synthesis).