Methods of Transmission of Stomach Germs

Methods of Transmission of Stomach Germs

(1) Saliva, dirty hands, and sweating skin.

(2) Fomites like towels, tableware, etc.

(3) Contact with an opined case of stomach disorder

(4) Eating food improperly cooked, stale, or left exposed to flies.

(5) Drinking water containing microorganisms especially bacillus coli communis which usually get into it from the sewage-contaminated river water.

(6) Taking ice in summer because the ice may be badly washed before packing and thus contain disease germs.

(7) Imperfect sterilization of milk; cows having mastitis; also eating buffalo’s milk cheese or curd or ice-cream made with unsterilized low-quality fat & sour cream.

Treatment:

(1) Drink a glass of boiled water or hot tea.

(2) Don’t eat for several hours.

(3) Take an antacid alkali mixture like Reuter’s Antacid Powder mixed with lukewarm water.

(4) If vomiting is severe, give saline purgative like Glauber’s Salt & Glycerine or a dose of castor oil.

(5) For pain, apply phenol on the region of the stomach and take chloroform from inhalation as needed. In case of severe vomiting, call the doctor immediately as it may be due to appendicitis or perforated ulcer, etc., which needs immediate attention.

(6) If you suffer from chronic or frequent attacks of indigestion, consult a good doctor for a detailed examination.

(7) If the stomach disorder is due to infection by rotavirus, change of season (from summer to winter in India), eating cold foods & beverages in excess, nausea, vomiting & stomach ache with heavy loss of weight and appetite, call your doctor immediately as it may be cholera or enteritis that needs urgent treatment with Chloro-quin tablets.

Types of stomach infections:

-acute gastritis

-chronic gastritis

-gastric ulcer

-stomach cancer (adenocarcinoma)

Stomach infections cause:

abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, and Vomiting. Infections as such can be caused by viruses or bacteria. They typically begin within the first three to five days of infection and usually last less than a week.

These symptoms are more common for acute Gastritis which is usually caused by the flu virus and another type of virus that causes vomiting and diarrhea. Chronic Gastritis can be caused because of autoimmune diseases like Rheumatoid arthritis, Celiac disease, etc. And is accompanied by symptoms like stomach pain, Ulcers, Nausea, and vomiting.

-Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide (after lung cancer). The two major types are adenocarcinoma (85%) and gastric cardia cancer (12%). Only one in five patients survive 10 years beyond diagnosis.

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This type of tumor typically does not cause symptoms at first; symptoms that appear as it grows larger may include indigestion, heartburn, or upper abdominal fullness after eating a small meal. Symptoms of metastasis outside of the stomach may include weight loss, bone pain, swelling of the legs due to accumulation of fluid (edema), enlarg of the liver or spleen, blood clots, confusion, or dementia.

-Gastritis is just acute or chronic inflammation of the lining of your stomach. It can come from a number of different things, including infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). H. pylori’s bacteria damages cells in the stomach and makes them easier for stomach acid to burn them which causes ulcers in the stomach lining leading to gastritis. Gastritis will cause symptoms like nausea vomiting diarrhea weight loss among others depending on what type you have.

Bacterial gastroenteritis:

Bacteria are responsible for an infection of the gastrointestinal tract. The most common bacteria causing gastroenteritis is Escherichia coli (E. coli). E. coli causes about 10-80% of cases of traveler’s diarrhea worldwide, depending on the region and the age group affected.

Diarrhea caused by E. coli can last from a few days to a week or more, and some people may have some watery diarrhea even after a week of other symptoms ending. This is called post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) and is not rare following many types of infectious diarrhea such as cholera or salmonella.

stomach infections:

The has two main purposes:

helping with digestion and stopping infection. Digestion is as simple as breaking down foodstuff with digestive enzymes (chemical catalysts) like amylase, proteinases, lipases, and carbohydrate enzymes like maltase, lactase, trehalase, etc.,

The epithelial lining of the stomach continuously regenerates itself. When it’s not being replenished by new cells from underneath, the fully differentiated inner lining dies off and gets shed into a body cavity called the lumen.

The lining of this kind provides protection against stomach acid, which damages tissue if it leaks out of the stomach. In addition to pushing old cells out onto the next layer of fresh lining below it’s responsible for secreting mucus that coats the inside of your abdomen.

A stomach infection can cause symptoms like nausea, fever, diarrhea, etc. And here are the top 5 stomach infections that are just too common.

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GASTROENTERITIS:

Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract that affects the stomach and small intestine. It is typically caused by a bacterial or viral infection but may also be caused by parasites such as Giardia lamblia, viruses such as norovirus, and chemical toxins such as pesticides. This article will focus on non-inflammatory causes of gastroenteritis.

H PYLORI INFECTION: 

Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects the stomach and causes gastritis, peptic ulcer disease (both chronic superficial gastritis and acute ulcers), and gastric adenocarcinoma. H pylori are responsible for more than 90% of duodenal ulcers and more than 80% of gastric ulcers worldwide.

It colonizes the stomach in over 50% of the world’s population, causing active infection in about 10-15%. However, most people are unaware of their active infections because it does not usually cause symptoms.

CANDIDA ALBICANS INFECTION:  

Candida albicans is a fungus that commonly causes yeast infections—more accurately called candidiasis or moniliasis—in women.

SALMONELLA INFECTION: 

Salmonella is a bacterium that causes one of the more common foodborne illnesses, salmonellosis. These infections are due to the consumption of foods contaminated with feces from animals harboring the bacteria. Poultry and eggs pose a relatively high risk for carrying salmonella, but meat, seafood, and raw milk also have been known to carry the bacteria.

ENTEROTOXIGENIC E COLI INFECTION:  

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection is a diarrheal illness caused by strains of a bacterium called Escherichia coli (E. coli). The bacterium produces a toxin that causes symptoms. ETEC is the leading cause of endemic traveler’s diarrhea worldwide, and it affects children more often than adults.

The symptoms vary according to the infecting dose of the bacteria, but they typically include vomiting, abdominal cramps, watery or bloody diarrhea that can last from one day to more than three weeks.

ETEC can also cause dehydration when fluids are not adequately replaced. The classic symptoms of traveler’s diarrhea usually appear after an incubation period of 1 to 3 days, with illness resolving within seven to ten days in otherwise healthy adults.

ETEC infection is caused by the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli). Many strains of E. coli live in your intestines and are harmless; in fact, some help keep your intestines healthy. But many disease-causing bacteria use these other strains as a sort of camouflage so that they aren’t easily recognized by your immune system. These camouflaged bacteria are called enteropathogenic E.

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EPEC is spread directly from person to person, through contact with someone who has the infection or contact with soiled hands or surfaces that have been contaminated by stool. For example, if a child with EPEC does not wash his hands after using the bathroom and then eats food without washing his hands first, he can give you some of the bacteria in his stool. If you eat this contaminated food, you may get sick too.

SHIGELLA INF:  

Shigellosis is a highly contagious infection caused by the Shigella bacteria. These bacteria produce toxins that contribute to diarrhea and tissue destruction that occur with shigellosis. The major symptoms of shigellosis are profuse watery diarrhea and painful bowel movements. Often, fever and stomach cramps will accompany the loose stools, as well as nausea and vomiting in some people.

ENTEROCHROMAINUS COLI: 

Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a bacterium commonly found in the intestines of humans and other animals, especially cattle. It is also present in the soil, where it is responsible for adding nitrogen to the environment. Some strains of E. coli are harmless, but other strains can make you sick. Infection with E. coli O157:H7 causes a range of symptoms, from mild diarrhea to severe bloody diarrhea and other complications.

KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE INFECTION:

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common bacterium that can cause illness in humans as well as other animals. In humans, it often affects people who are hospitalized for other conditions, especially those staying in intensive care units or preoperative patients who have breathing tubes placed into their windpipeation (in the tub). It is also known as K. oxytoca.

PARAINFLUENZA TACHYGRAPHA VIRUS INFECTION:  

Parainfluenza virus is a respiratory infection. There are 4 types of this virus, called types 1-4. These viruses cause respiratory symptoms such as fever, cough, runny nose, and red eyes. They usually resolve without treatment in one to two weeks.

What causes bacterial gastroenteritis:

Many bacteria, viruses, and parasites can cause gastroenteritis. The most common are Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp., enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella spp., Norwalk-like viruses, rotavirus, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Isospora Belli, Microsporidia.

It is transmitted by the fecal-oral route or by direct contact with fomites that have been soiled by infectious diarrhea.

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