It is the uncontrolled growth of cells. These cells get divided and multiply very fast, sometimes secreting hormones lacking in normal body tissues. And stay attached to the adjacent tissues or organs. It leads to the formation of lumps known as tumors. Tumors are further classified into two types benign tumor and malignant tumor.
The name itself says that benign tumor doesn’t spread beyond their original place. Still, malignant tumors proliferate and spread through blood vessels to other parts of the body, causing death because they do not effectively respond to any treatment.
This condition occurs when cancer cells grow progressively, invade surrounding tissue & metastasize (spread) throughout the body via the Blood & lymphatic system, which results in disruption of vital body functions & eventually death if not treated properly.
The first symptom usually appears as a small lump or mass that can or may not be painful, depending on the type of cancer. Treatment is based on the type and stage of cancer, preferences, general health, age & other factors. A positive attitude towards life will help you to live longer. So always stay positive & live healthily.
1 . Metastasis:
It is the spreading of cancer cells from their original site to different parts of the human body through the blood or lymphatic system. It is further defined as direct spread where tumor cells enter the bloodstream, a lymphatic route where tumor drains into nodes in the chest, lung, etc… Or indirect distance occurs when metastases are produced from a mass or a tumor which furthers spreads to different parts of the body.
2 . Cancer cells:
Cancer cells are abnormal cells in our body that grow fast and invade healthy tissues. They do not respond to the treatment given for it & destroy major organs if left untreated.
These cells can arise from normal tissue when they acquire mutations that allow them to grow & multiply, violate cell cycle arrest, DNA repair checkpoints, etc… Or they can be directly formed from malignant transformation of germline precursor cells, e.g., leukemias and lymphomas. There are various types of cancer such as Skin cancer, Lung cancer, Liver cancer, Breast cancer, Kidney cancers, Leukemia, and Lymphoma, among others.
3 . Carcinogenesis:
It is the formation of cancer cells or tumors caused by exposure to chemicals, radiation, or other substances that may damage DNA. Carcinogens are genotoxic (genetic) and nongenotoxic (not genetic).
Genotoxins affect the DNA molecule directly or indirectly that resulting in mutations. Ultraviolet radiations, Benzo-a-pyrene, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Hydrazine, Chromium salts, etc… Are genotoxic carcinogens, whereas nitrosamines, Asbestos, Betel quid, etc… Are some examples of nongenotoxic carcinogens.
4 . Initiation:
Initiation is said to have occurred when genetic damage results in the acquisition of proliferative potential. This process takes place as a result of exposure to carcinogens.
5 . Promotion:
Promotion is the process whereby initiated cells acquire additional mutations & changes at the DNA level, leading to neoplastic transformation. Many substances such as antineoplastic drugs, Carcinogenic drugs, Viruses, etc… Are responsible for this process.
6 . Termination:
The terminal phase or stage that arises due to tumor growth wherein the control of cancerous growth by homeostatic mechanisms is lost, and a malignant mass develops, resulting in death if not treated properly on time. Thus early treatment gives better survival rates among patients with cancer. Treatment may be by surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, vaccine therapy, and immunotherapy.
7 . Prognosis:
Prognosis predicts a cancer patient’s future health & survival rate based on factors such as stage of cancer, type of cancer, general health, etc., which guide doctors in their treatment methods. A positive attitude towards life gives better results compared to a negative one.
Hence stay positive consistently regardless of what happens in your life. Have faith that everything will be okay eventually. Even if you are diagnosed with cancer or any other disease, do not lose hope. Stay strong & fight for your rights regardless of how much pain you are going through. Get treated properly for better recovery!
8 . Cancer cells proliferate rapidly, causing malignancy due to lack of genetic, thus making it difficult to treat them. This makes cancer cells highly dangerous & life-threatening diseases; therefore, medical intervention is critical.
9 . Byproducts of cancer are body fluid that can be highly hazardous, e.g., Blood, breath, stool, etc… If they contact any working person or anyone else, it causes serious health problems such as infections and other sicknesses.
10 . Cancer has no cure, and the only way out left for cancer patients is chemotherapy and surgery, thus making it a deadly disease. According to statistics, more than 4 lakh people die due to this illness worldwide.
11 . Junk foods consist of high contents of sugar and harmful fats, which increase the risk of obesity & related diseases like diabetes and hypertension.
12 . Smoking and tobacco chewing cause cancers and contribute to other diseases like heart attack, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), emphysema, etc… Which has no cure & can lead to death.
13 . Avoid using clothes washed with contaminated water. The water may contain bacteria that cause cancer, e.g., chloroform found in the domestic water supply can cause liver cancer when used for laundry purposes.
14 . Chemicals such as insecticides, pesticides, paint thinners, and solvents all are carcinogenic and should be avoided while working around them. Wear protective glasses, masks, gloves, and keep all cleaning chemicals locked away safely so that children or anyone else does not get access to them.
15 . Allergic reactions are mainly caused due to toxins & chemicals present in different cosmetics, e.g., Deodorants, perfumes, cleaning products, etc… Thus people having sensitive skin should be careful while using any effect on their body rather than applying anything first, test it out or consult a doctor for advice.
16 . Diseases like hepatitis B & C also cause cancer, so the doctors advise patients with risk factors for hepatitis B and C to get vaccinated to avoid getting these diseases, hence avoiding further damage to your liver that can lead to deadly cancer diseases like liver cancer among others.
17 . Patients with sickle cell anemia, leukemia, and HIV infection are more likely to develop cancers than healthy people; hence proper care is necessary.
18 . Patients with poor immunity due to lack of vitamins or other reasons such as stress also carry a risk of contracting cancer earlier compared to other people.
19 . Cancer screening tests are done to find early signs of malignancy before it spreads anywhere else in the body, thus receiving medical attention immediately & curing the disease quickly.
20 . Bone marrow transplantation is another diagnostic test performed on bone marrow cells that can be used for further analysis. If malignant cells are detected, treatment for them must be taken immediately.