Benefits and Side Effects of Quinine
Quinine was sold in pharmacies before it became a medicine, and its primary use was for prophylaxis of malaria.
this drug not only kills organisms (pathogens) that cause diseases but also stimulates the immune system to fight against the pathogen.
quinine has historically been used to prevent or treat “viral fevers” which are not due to malaria (see next section).
quinine is currently effective for the treatment of falciparum malaria (the most serious type) when given by injection, usually in conjunction with doxycycline or clindamycin in order to increase effectiveness.
it is sometimes still used as an unapproved drug in some countries for prevention of night-time leg cramps, a common problem in people with poor blood circulation or a history of such cramps.
quinine is also used as an unapproved drug to treat other diseases, including nocturnal leg cramps (“restless legs syndrome”) and Ménière’s disease.
the drug is useful for the prevention of attacks of certain forms of malaria that are resistant to chloroquine.
Benefits from quinine:
1. it helps to improve vision. one study shows that it may be helpful to those experiencing blurred vision due to acute mountain sickness. two other studies also suggest benefit from its use in improving eyesight in patients afflicted by mild high altitude retinopathy.
2. it relieves pain. a study is one of the first to show that quinine relieves pain from chemotherapy.
3. it reduces swelling. an investigation showed that regular use of the drug reduced inflammation by as much as 43%. quinine was able to reduce swelling as well as ibuprofen, an anti-inflammatory.
4. it also helps in cleansing or detoxifying the liver and kidneys. a study with ten patients who had both conditions shows that they were helped greatly by taking between 50-100mg per day for 45 days.
5. it fights viral fevers: researchers have shown that it can treat a number of different viruses, including herpes, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B virus, and flavivirus. this is because quinine has the ability to kill viruses and inhibit their reproduction.
6. it also shows promise in treating bronchitis, joint pain, and ulcers, among other things.
7. when combined with aspirin or acetaminophen (paracetamol), it can reduce fever when taken for at least five days after symptoms begin and in children who are at least two years old.
8. it relieves leg cramps: many people take it orally to help ease night-time leg cramps in adults over the age of 60 years old who have no underlying condition that causes such cramps; however, there is not enough evidence currently to provide a strong recommendation regarding its safety and effectiveness
Quinine is both an antimalarial drug and an FDA-approved treatment for leg cramps at night. Quinine is not effective in the prophylaxis of malaria, but only in the treatment of acute attacks. It has also been used to treat lupus erythematosus, arthritis, fever due to infection (including Plasmodium), and decreasing intraocular pressure in the diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma.
Quinine vs chloroquine:
Quinine is derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. Quinine, which is an alkaloid, was first isolated by Pelletier and Caventou in 1820. It was soon applied as a treatment for malaria after it was discovered that patients being treated with quinine did not develop symptoms of malaria. As mentioned before, since 2010, resistance to quinine has been reported in some parts of Southeast Asia.
Nonetheless, the World Health Organization still recommends its use for certain types of resistant strains found around the world.
Chloroquine is medically used as an antimalarial drug capable of eliminating erythrocytic forms of all species of malaria parasites occurring in man although it shows no effect against hepatic stages.
The drug enters the infected erythrocyte and is converted into a toxic form that inhibits haem polymerase, leading to the accumulation of RNA in late intra-erythrocytic forms. It also inhibits the release of P I from the liver to the bloodstream.
Oral administration is preferred because the drug has better absorption from the intestine due to its lipid solubility compared with quinine which requires alkalinization for maximum absorption.
The long duration of action makes it suitable for weekly administration. In addition, it can be given at a one-time dose as well as in several divided doses according to patient convenience and compliance. Taking chloroquine avoids the risk of local irritation by quinine injections which cause pain and tissue damage especially when given intramuscularly.
Quinine benefits for lungs:
Quinine is prescribed as a treatment for serious malaria infections that are resistant to other antimalarial medications. It belongs to the class of medications known as alkaloids. Quinine has also been used for leg cramps, muscle pain caused by sickle cell disease, high blood pressure in the lung (pulmonary hypertension), and leg discomfort caused by wearing tight pants or stockings with rigid fibers that can constrict the flow of blood through veins in the legs.
Quinine is available under several brand names including Auroquine, Genquin, Malarone, Nivaquine, Paludrine, Quensyl SR, Robiquin-D, Thombran, Warraq, and Wintomylon. Quinine is also available as a combination medication that contains quinine and an antacid (Maalox).
tiredness drowsiness headache fever rash muscle pain nausea vomiting loss of appetite ringing in the ears hearing loss diarrhea lightheadedness fainting irregular heartbeat chest pain fast or slow heart rate swelling arms, legs, ankles, or feet easy bruising trouble sleeping dark urine other side effects Other less serious side effects are more likely to occur.
Continue using quinine and talk to your doctor if you experience dry mouth; mild dizziness; mild itching; nausea, vomiting, indigestion, stomach pain, loss of appetite, or increased sweating; a headache that is not severe or long-lasting; or constipation. Quinine may cause other side effects. Talk to your doctor if you have any unusual problems while taking this medication.
This drug may make you dizzy or drowsy. Do not drive, use machinery, or do any activity that requires alertness until you are sure you can perform such activities safely. Limit alcoholic beverages.
Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).
Avoid touching infected areas in order to prevent irritation and spreading the infection to others.
Quinine has been used to treat leg cramps, muscle pain caused by sickle cell disease, high blood pressure in the lung (pulmonary hypertension), and leg discomfort caused by wearing tight pants or stockings with rigid fibers that can constrict the flow of blood through veins in the legs.
Tonic water without quinine:
This medication is used to prevent and treat malaria, a serious infection spread by certain types of mosquitoes. Quinine belongs to a class of drugs known as antimalarials. It helps prevent the growth of parasites in your red blood cells so that they are destroyed before they reach the liver or kidneys.
Quinine treats nocturnal leg cramps (also called nocturnal myoclonus). Nocturnal leg cramps are sudden, painful contractions of the muscles in your legs during sleep. Quinine also relieves muscle pain caused by sickle cell disease or blood vessel problems due to diabetes.
Quinine side effects:
low blood sugar fainting confusion seizures irregular heartbeats slow heart rate cough trouble sleeping headache upset stomach vomiting diarrhea muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness easy bruising dark urine yellowing of the skin or eyes seizures extreme fatigue
Continue using quinine and talk to your doctor if you experience dry mouth; mild dizziness or lightheadedness; slight itching; nausea, vomiting, indigestion, stomach pain, loss of appetite, increased sweating, a headache that is not severe or long-lasting; constipation; or tiredness. Quinine may cause other side effects. Talk to your doctor if you have any unusual problems while taking this medication.
Quinine sulfate has been used for several decades as an antimalarial compound. However, it can also affect human sensory neurons at higher concentrations. Quinine seems to be more toxic to peripheral than central nervous system neurons, possibly due to the fact that it is able to cross the blood-brain barrier poorly.