Angina Pectoris Effects
Angina: chest pain or discomfort, usually under the breastbone and radiating to the left arm and shoulder.
Pectoris: (Cardiology) describing conditions involving the chest wall or related structures, especially those affecting the heart muscle.
The condition of having an ache or burning sensation in one’s chest is called angina pectoris. It can be a symptom of severe underlying disease such as coronary artery disease. Angina often occurs during physical exertion but may also occur at rest.
The term “angina pectoris” comes from Latin words meaning “pain of the chest.” Angina is a type of acute chest pain that is brought on by exertion, emotional stress, cold weather, heavy meals, or smoking. The pain is usually severe and lasts for a few minutes. It may be mistaken for a heart attack.
One of the main problems with angina pectoris is that many people don’t know they have it. Studies have shown that only half of people who have angina episodes seek medical help. Many people mistakenly believe that chest pain means they are having a heart attack and, as a result, delay seeking medical care.
The main symptom of angina pectoris is chest pain or discomfort. The pain may be sharp, dull, burning, squeezing, or aching. It may be located under the breastbone or radiate to the left arm and shoulder.
The pain usually occurs during physical exertion but may also occur at rest. The pain is typically severe and lasts for a few minutes. Some people describe the pain as feeling “crushing,” “heavy,” or “a vise being tightened around my chest.”
The typical acute angina pectoris episode does have some distinctive features to it, however. Hence, it is helpful to know what they are to distinguish an acute angina episode from other conditions that could present with chest pain. When compared to many different types of chest pain, the onset of the symptoms is much more predictable in classic cases of coronary artery disease-related angina pectoris.
That is to say, and the patient will typically experience symptoms only when they engage in certain activities (e.g., stair climbing, running, brisk walking) that put increased demand on the heart muscle. The pain usually goes away within a few minutes after the person stops the strenuous activity.
Chest pain can also be caused by numerous other medical conditions such as pneumonia, aortic aneurysm, and pulmonary embolism. It is important to note that not all chest pain is due to angina pectoris. Further workup by a healthcare professional may be necessary to determine the underlying cause of symptoms.
The critical distinguishing feature between most of these other causes of chest pain and angina pectoris is that the latter typically occurs only during periods of physical exertion.
what causes angina pectoris:
There are several known causes of angina pectoris, which is coronary artery disease (CAD). When the arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle (coronary arteries) become narrowed or blocked, the amount of blood and oxygen that can reach the heart decreases. This can lead to chest pain (angina) that may radiate to the arms, neck, or jaw. Other causes of angina pectoris include:
-Atherosclerosis: A condition in which plaque builds up inside the arteries, narrowing them and reducing blood flow.
-Smoking: Cigarette smoking increases the risk of developing atherosclerosis and other heart conditions.
-High blood pressure: hypertension can damage the arteries and lead to plaque build-up.
-Diabetes: Diabetes can damage blood vessels and increase the risk of atherosclerosis.
-Heart attack: A heart attack can cause scar tissue to form in the coronary arteries, leading to angina.
Mitral valve prolapse:
A condition in which the mitral valve (the valve that separates the left atrium and ventricle) doesn’t close properly, causing leakage of blood backward into the left atrium. This can place extra stress on the heart and lead to angina.
A condition in which the aortic valve (the valve that separates the left and right ventricles) doesn’t open properly, causing a decrease in blood flow from the left ventricle. This can lead to angina.
Coarctation of the aorta:
A congenital disability (present at birth) in which the aorta is narrowed, preventing blood from flowing freely to other parts of the body. This can lead to angina.
Angina pectoris treatment:
There are several ways to treat angina. Treatment options include: -Medications for heart conditions, including aspirin and beta-blockers.
-Coronary artery bypass surgery, in which healthy blood vessels are connected from other parts of the body to the coronary arteries to increase the flow of oxygenated blood.
-A procedure called balloon angioplasty, during which a small tube is inserted into an artery at the groin or arm and then threaded through to the blocked artery until it reaches the heart.
A tiny balloon at the tip of this tube is inflated to clear out any blockages, after which the balloon is deflated and removed along with the catheter. The narrowed artery remains open using stents (mesh tubes that keep the highway open).
-A procedure called coronary artery stenting, a small metal mesh tube (stent) is inserted into an artery at the groin or arm and then threaded through to the blocked artery until it reaches the heart. The stent is then expanded to fit snugly against the highway’s inside, opening up the passage and restoring blood flow.
Angina pectoris symptoms:
The most common angina pectoris include chest pain and shortness of breath. The chest pain may be described as a pressure, heaviness, tightness, or burning sensation and may radiate to other body parts such as the arms, neck, or jaw. The pain may be worse when exercising or during periods of stress and may go away after a short rest period.
Additional symptoms can include:
-Shortness of breath
Angina pectoris diagnosis:
If you experience any of the symptoms of angina pectoris, it’s essential to see a doctor right away for diagnosis and treatment. Your doctor will perform a physical examination and ask about your medical history. They may also order tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG) or coronary angiography to determine the cause of your chest pain.
Angina pectoris prevention:
There is no known way to prevent angina pectoris, but you can lower your risk of developing the condition by following a healthy lifestyle. This includes quitting smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, eating a balanced diet, and exercising regularly.
Angina pectoris (AP) is chest pain when the heart doesn’t get enough oxygen. This can be due to a decrease in blood flow to the heart muscle or a blockage in one of the coronary arteries. AP can cause shortness of breath, nausea, and a feeling of tightness or pressure in the chest.
The most common symptom is chest pain that may be described as pressure, heaviness, tightness, or burning sensation. The pain may radiate to other body parts such as the arms, neck, or jaw. The pain may be worse when exercising or during periods of stress and may go away after a short rest period.
Types of angina pectoris:
-Variant angina: This type only occurs when active and can be relieved by rest or nitroglycerin.
-Stable angina: This type is constant, not affected by activity.
-Unstable angina: This type of pain does not go away after taking rest or nitroglycerin. Unstable angina may require urgent medical treatment to prevent a heart attack, stroke, or other serious problems.
Angina pectoris causes:
Angina pectoris is caused due to coronary artery disease (CAD), which narrows the arteries that supply blood and oxygen to the heart muscle and causes it to become stressed. CAD develops over time as part of atherosclerosis – a condition in which fatty deposits called plaque build up inside the arteries. This can cause them to become narrowed, stiff, and less flexible. As a result, the heart has to work harder to pump blood through the narrowed arteries, resulting in chest pain.
variant angina symptoms:
Variant (Prinzmetal’s) angina, which occurs when a sudden and temporary lack of blood supply to the heart, can be brought on by stress or strenuous physical activity. Symptoms may include:
Shortness of breath
variant angina causes:
The most common cause for this type of angina is spasms in the walls of the coronary arteries. Spasms happen when muscles in a route constrict or tighten, which slows down or blocks blood flow through that particular artery. This results in low oxygen levels in the heart muscle, also known as angina pectoris.
Stable angina treatment:
Treatment for stable angina usually includes lifestyle changes to reduce other risk factors, take medicine, or have cardiac procedures if needed. The treatment goals are to prevent future heart attacks and decrease the risk of death due to CAD.
These include quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and being physically active.
-Medicine: Your doctor may prescribe medications such as beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and nitrates to help control your symptoms.
-Cardiac procedures: If you have severe angina or evidence of heart damage, you may need surgery or other processes to improve blood flow to your heart.