Which Of The Following Fats Predominates in The Diet And The Body?
(a) saturated fat,
(b) polyunsaturated fat,
(c) monounsaturated fat, or
Answer:- (B), polyunsaturated fats predominate in the diet and body. The fact that there are three choices may confuse. In addition, many students find it challenging to decide between (A) and (C) since both are listed before option (D).
A good strategy is not to look at all four answers because they don’t provide a complete solution. Instead, take the first letter of each word – SPUM – and note that it spells “spam.” This provides a helpful clue to help you eliminate any answer choice that is not (B).
(C) The liver’s glycogen stores are exhausted in about 12 hours after fasting.
How long can the liver survive without glucose coming in from the bloodstream?
Answer:- (A), 30 minutes after hepatic glycogen stores are depleted, gluconeogenesis begins to produce new glucose via protein catabolism. The rate of protein breakdown diminishes over time because amino acids are released into the bloodstream for energy, leading to nitrogen depletion and ketosis.
Harmful feedback mechanisms act to decrease the further release of amino acids. This answer is incorrect because it takes longer than 12 hours for these negative feedback responses to reach full effectiveness.
Glucagon levels remain elevated in fasting and diabetic hyperglycemic states, so this answer is incorrect. The rate of gluconeogenesis diminishes over time because the amino acids are released into the bloodstream for energy, leading to nitrogen depletion and ketosis. Harmful feedback mechanisms decrease the further release of amino acids, so this answer is incorrect.
Note that if option (D) were valid, the liver could make new glucose forever; therefore, it must be false. This question can be answered using basic knowledge about gluconeogenesis and harmful feedback mechanisms while ignoring the other choices.
Which of the following is a rich source of monounsaturated fat:
b) Shea butter
c) Sunflower oil
d) Canola oil
e) All of the above are rich in monounsaturated fats.
a) Olives – Yes, 1 tbsp olive oil contains 9 g fat, 8 g of which is monounsaturated fat. However, most of the calories come from polyunsaturated and saturated fats.
b) Shea butter – No, shea butter has a high level of saturated fatty acids and no significant amount of mono- or polyunsaturated 80.
c) Sunflower oil – No, sunflower oil is% PUFA (mainly omega 6).
d) Canola oil – Yes, canola oil is mostly (70%) monounsaturated and polyunsaturated (omega 3, omega 6) and has a good balance of omega-3/6.
e) All of the above are rich in monounsaturated fats. – Yes. Oleic acid is the primary fatty acid in olive oil, contributing to its health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health, better skin condition, and reduced cancer risk.
Trans-fatty acids are:
a) Unsaturated fats found in processed foods.
b) Fats that are only found naturally in animal products.
c) Fats are made up of organic compounds that contain double bonds between carbon atoms.
d) All the above are correct.
e) None of these are correct.
b) Fats that are only found naturally in animal products – trans-fatty acids (or trans fats, or partially hydrogenated oils/fats), can be both unsaturated and saturated with a double bond between two carbon atoms as well as organic compounds containing single bonds such as monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids.
d) All the above are correct – Yes, trans-fatty acids are unsaturated fats that contain a double bond between two carbon atoms, as well as organic compounds containing single bonds such as monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids.
e) None of these are correct – No, not all the above are correct. However, trans-fatty acids can be both unsaturated and saturated with a double bond between two carbon atoms and organic compounds containing single bonds such as monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Sources of Unsaturated Fat:
1) Flaxseed oil – omega 3 – alpha-linolenic acid essential for brain development, also anti-inflammatory benefits
2) Olive oil – mono/polyunsaturated oleic acid- antioxidant and heart-healthy
3) Avocado – mono/polyunsaturated oleic acid
4) Coconut oil – saturated and monounsaturated (mainly lauric and myristic acids)- antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal properties. Increases HDL cholesterol and reduces LDL
5) Sesame oil – rich in omega 6; antibacterial; antioxidant; strengthens tooth enamel
6) Palm kernel oil – high amount of saturated fatty acids (mainly palmitic & myristic), very little unsaturated fat (only 5%); increased terrible cholesterol and Lowered good cholesterol.
7) Butter – Monounsaturated fats; high amounts of saturated fats, high cholesterol.
8) Ghee – Mainly monounsaturated fat; contains about 50% saturated fatty acids and 46 % monounsaturated acid.