When The Diet Contains More Energy Than is Expended, The Excess Energy
A. is stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles
B. is converted to triglycerides and stored in adipose tissue
C. is oxidized for ATP production by all cells of the body but more so by skeletal muscle
D. A & C
E. B & D
Answer D: The primary function of skeletal muscle is movement. Hence, energy expenditure is high during periods of exercise or other strenuous activity due to contraction of the muscle fibers, which require ATP for energy that ultimately derives from carbohydrate (glucose), fat (free fatty acids), and protein (amino acids) catabolism.
When there is low demand on the skeletal muscles, such as at rest, skeletal muscles require less ATP and can readily convert stored glycogen back to glucose as an energy substrate.
Liver cells primarily responsible for maintaining blood glucose homeostasis by processing dietary carbohydrates, protein, and fat in conjunction with hormone secretion by the pancreatic islets also provide a metabolic activity that supports glucose utilization when the skeletal muscle has reduced energy demands.
The primary function of adipose tissue is the storage of triglyceride derived from dietary sources after hydrolysis of stored lipids (i.e., fatty acids) or during the synthesis of lipids in response to hormone/cytokine regulation.
E: One function all cells have in common is energy production needed to maintain cellular integrity. Under periods where the body requires ATP at a faster rate than can be supplied by glycolysis (anaerobic), the cell will break down stored glycogen, fat, or protein to generate more ATP in a process called oxidative phosphorylation.
This occurs primarily in skeletal muscle and liver cells when high energy demands. Adipose tissue is less active in terms of ATP production but does contribute to overall energy expenditure through the secretion of hormones and pro-inflammatory cytokines.
So the bottom line is that during times of low demand on skeletal muscles, the primary sources of energy for ATP production are from conversion of glycogen to glucose by the liver, mobilization of free fatty acids from adipose tissue, and oxidation of amino acids.
In times of high demand, there is an increased reliance on muscle glycogen breakdown, and the hepatic process is inhibited. Unfortunately, this question is somewhat confusing because A is two viable choices (Glycogen to glucose).
Energy consumed is more remarkable than energy expended:
This is because the body burns more calories digesting food than it does from eating it. So even if you eat a small snack, your body will still burn more calories digesting that snack than if you had not eaten anything at all. This is known as the thermic effect of food.
There are several ways to increase the amount of energy you expend each day, which will help you to lose weight or maintain your current weight. One of the easiest methods is to move more. Taking walks, hiking, cycling, and swimming are all great exercises to help burn extra calories. You can also try incorporating strength training into your routine; these exercises help build muscle mass, which burns more calories throughout the day.
all the following are factual statements about basal metabolism except:
it is the energy expended by the body at rest.
It accounts for between 60 and 80% of a person’s daily calorie expenditure.
It can be calculated using an equation that uses sex, height, weight, and age as variables.
The amount of calories you expend each day depends on your basal metabolic rate (BMR). BMR essentially measures how many calories you would use if you were to do nothing but lie around all day.
To calculate your own BMR, take your weight in kilograms and multiply it by 24. This will provide you with a rough estimate of how many calories per day your body burns while resting, assuming that no exercise was done during this time. If you weigh more, your BMR will be higher; if you weigh less, it will be lower.
While basal metabolism is a crucial factor in how many calories you expend each day, it is not the only one. Physical activity and diet play a role in how many calories you burn each day. To lose weight, you need to create a calorie deficit by burning more calories than you consume. This can be done by increasing your activity level, eating a healthy diet, or both.
The best predictor of your basal metabolic rate is:
While several factors can influence your basal metabolic rate (BMR), the best predictor is your body weight. The more you weigh, the higher your BMR will be; the less you weigh, the slower it will be.
This is because heavier individuals have more tissue (muscle, bone, and fat) to burn energy than lighter ones. As you get older, your BMR also declines, so it’s essential to recalculate it every few years.
There are several ways to increase your basal metabolic rate, which will help you to burn more calories each day. These methods include incorporating strength training into your routine, adding more physical activity to your day, and eating a healthy diet.
As you age, your basal metabolic rate (BMR) declines. This is because muscle tissue in your body decreases as you get older. Muscle is an active tissue that burns calories to maintain itself, so without it, your body requires less energy to function every day. The good news is that this decline can be slowed down by exercising regularly and eating a nutritious diet full of lean protein and fresh fruits and vegetables.