Complications of The Common Cold

Complications of The Common Cold

1. Runny nose:

A runny nose is the most common complication of the common cold, which is caused by adenoviruses or rhinoviruses. This condition may last up to 4-5 days. To reduce this, you can use a saline nasal spray or saline nasal drops within 1 hour after waking up in the morning till bedtime for 5-6 days.

2. Coughing:

Coughing associated with common colds is caused by viral infections that irritate your throat muscles into a spasm that results in coughing fits. These complications usually subside on their own without treatment, but it can be extremely annoying if it continues for more than two weeks or there is blood present in your mucus (dyspnea). You can use cough suppressants such as dextromethorphan, codeine, and diphenhydramine for a maximum duration of 2 weeks.

3. Postnasal drip:

This complication occurs if the adenovirus or rhinovirus infects your sinus, and the inflammation of the mucous membrane lining causes postnasal drip. This condition is characterized by increased mucus formation that leads to a runny nose followed by sneezing spasms that result in an irritating tickling sensation in the throat, which produces a need to clear your throat often.

The best way to relieve this symptom is using over-the-counter nonprescription medications such as antihistamines, decongestants, and nasal sprays that contain anti-inflammatory substances such as phenylephrine and oxymetazoline.

4. Nasal congestion:

Secondary infections caused by adenoviruses or rhinoviruses also cause mucus membrane swelling, narrowing the airways, and nasal congestion. It is characterized by a dry irritating sensation in the throat, throat clearing, and difficulty breathing through your nose.

You can use decongestants such as pseudoephedrine for up to 7 days for adults and three days for children only if prescribed by your doctor to relieve this symptom. This medication should be taken according to label directions about taking dosage due to acute onset of symptoms after two weeks of infection, then reducing dosage before stopping entirely within 5-7 days.

5. Boils:

These are skin infections caused by the staphylococcus aureus bacterium, which is sensitive to the penicillin group of antibiotics. People who suffer from boils usually have a poor immune system, a history of common colds and bacterial sinusitis, or chronic lung disease that can be exacerbated due to secondary infection with bacteria causing boils on the nasal membrane lining around the eyes, nose, and face.

It also occurs in people who use steroidal medication for extended periods. To relieve boil symptoms, you can try over-the-counter topical antibiotic ointments such as mupirocin for up to 7 days or oral antibiotics if prescribed by your doctor.

6. Sinusitis:

This complication is caused by a secondary bacterial infection of either adenoviruses or rhinoviruses in your sinus cavities which usually occurs after 2-3 weeks of initial viral infection. This condition is characterized by nasal congestion, runny nose with yellowish discharge that can be thin or thick, fever and headache on the affected side, tenderness over the infected sinus on palpation, and decreased sense of smell.

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To relieve symptoms, you can try decongestants such as pseudoephedrine for up to 7 days only if prescribed by your doctor, who should be taken according to label directions about taking dosage due to acute onset of symptoms after two weeks of infection then reducing dosage before stopping entirely within 5-7 days. You can use oral or topical nasal corticosteroids for up to 10 days if prescribed by your doctor.

This medication should be taken according to label directions about taking dosage due to acute onset of symptoms after two weeks of infection, then reducing dosage before stopping entirely within 5-7 days. You can also use oral or topical antibiotics such as amoxicillin, cefuroxime, and azithromycin for 5-10 days with or without decongestants if prescribed by your doctor.

7. Fungal sinusitis (Rhinophyma):

This condition is caused by an allergic reaction in the form of chronic rhinitis that triggers the overgrowth of certain species of fungi in the nasal membrane lining, thus causing nasal obstruction, headache, runny nose, nasal itching, and thick nasal discharge. The fungi involved in this condition are Aspergillus, Rhizopus, or Mucor species.

You can relieve fungal sinusitis symptoms by using oral antifungal medication such as ketoconazole with topical nasal steroid spray for 5-7 days only if prescribed by your doctor, who should be taken according to label directions about taking dosage due to acute onset of symptoms after two weeks of infection then reducing dosage before stopping entirely within 5-7 days.

8. Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB):

This complication is caused by a secondary bacterial infection of either adenoviruses or rhinoviruses in your lungs, thus causing bronchi inflammation, fever, dry cough, sputum production, and shortness of breath. This condition is usually caused by adenovirus types 5 and 7 with secondary bacterial infections caused by Haemophilus influenza or Streptococcus pneumonia.

To relieve these symptoms, you can try oral or topical nasal decongestants such as pseudoephedrine for up to 7 days only if prescribed by your doctor, which should be taken according to label directions about taking dosage due to acute onset of symptoms after two weeks of infection then reducing dosage before stopping entirely within 5-7 days. You can also use oral or topical antibiotics such as amoxicillin, cefuroxime, and azithromycin for 5-10 days with or without decongestants if prescribed by your doctor.

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9. Nasal polyps:

Multiple growths in the nasal passages characterize this condition due to chronic inflammation in the nasal mucous membranes, which cause obstruction, runny nose, and bloody stools (hematemesis). This problem occurs when your immune system attacks your body’s tissues due to repeated infections or allergies.

To relieve these symptoms, you can try topical corticosteroid sprays for 5-7 days only if prescribed by your doctor, then reduce dosage before stopping entirely within 5-7 days. You can also use oral or topical antibiotics such as amoxicillin, cefuroxime, and azithromycin for 5-10 days with or without decongestants if prescribed by your doctor.

10. Infection of the paranasal sinuses:

This infection is usually due to bacterial infections such as staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus pyogenes. It causes rhinitis, facial pain with swelling, nasal discharge of blood mixed with pus, fever, and headache.

With this type of infection, you can relieve your symptoms by using topical nasal corticosteroid sprays for 5-7 days only if prescribed by your doctor, then reducing dosage before stopping entirely within 5-7 days. You can also use oral or topical antibiotics such as amoxicillin, cefuroxime, and azithromycin for 5-10 days with or without decongestants if prescribed by your doctor.

11. Cutaneous larva migrans:

This condition is due to the migration of larvae of hookworms in your skin, causing severe itching, tingling or crawling sensation, pain, and swelling caused by the attachment of the larvae into the upper layer of your skin. The most common species involved are Ancylostoma braziliense and Necator americanus which can be transmitted through pets especially dogs with fleas living in the soil where they bury themselves, thus infecting animals.

You can relieve these symptoms by using oral or topical antihistamines for 5-7 days only if prescribed by your doctor, then reducing dosage before stopping entirely within 5-7 days. You can also use oral or topical antibiotics such as amoxicillin, cefuroxime, and azithromycin for 5-10 days with or without decongestants if prescribed by your doctor.

12. Cutaneous larva currens:

This condition is caused by the migration of larvae of hookworms in your skin, causing intense itching, tingling or crawling sensation, pain, and swelling caused by the attachment of the larvae into the upper layer of your skin. The most common species involved are Ancylostoma braziliense and Necator americanus which can be transmitted through pets especially dogs with fleas living in the soil where they bury themselves, thus infecting animals.

You can relieve these symptoms by using topical corticosteroid creams for 3-5 days only if prescribed by your doctor, then reducing dosage before stopping entirely within 5-7 days. You can also use oral or topical antibiotics such as amoxicillin, cefuroxime, and azithromycin for 5-10 days with or without decongestants if prescribed by your doctor.

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13. Furuncular myiasis:

This is a rare condition caused by the larvae of botflies entering your skin through deep cuts, scratches, and extreme sweating in humid areas to live there while feeding on your flesh, causing discharge from these wounds leading to infection and formation nodules which may be filled with maggots.

This condition starts from the feet then moves upwards towards the lower limbs, usually during tropical summertime when you walk barefoot in hot weather conditions allowing flies’ eggs attached to the soil to hatch.

You can relieve these symptoms by using topical corticosteroid creams for 3-5 days only if prescribed by your doctor, then reducing dosage before stopping entirely within 5-7 days. You can also use oral or topical antibiotics such as amoxicillin, cefuroxime, and azithromycin for 5-10 days with or without decongestants if prescribed by your doctor.

14. Cutaneous myiasis:

This condition is caused by the larvae of botflies entering your skin through deep cuts, scratches, and extreme sweating in humid areas to live there while feeding on your flesh, causing discharge from these wounds leading to infection and formation of nodules which may be filled with maggots. This condition is more common in people with scabies and fungal skin infections.

Treatment for this condition varies from patient to patient based on severity. Still, you can relieve these symptoms by using topical corticosteroid creams for 3-5 days only if prescribed by your doctor, then reducing dosage before stopping entirely within 5-7 days. You can also use oral or topical antibiotics such as amoxicillin, cefuroxime, and azithromycin for 5-10 days with or without decongestants if prescribed by your doctor.

15. Cutaneous myiasis migrants:

This condition is caused by the larvae of botflies entering your skin through deep cuts, scratches, and extreme sweating in humid areas to live there while feeding on your flesh, causing discharge from these wounds leading to infection and formation of nodules which may be filled with maggots. This condition is more common in people with scabies and fungal skin infections.

Treatment for this condition varies from patient to patient based on severity. Still, you can relieve these symptoms by using topical corticosteroid creams for 3-5 days only if prescribed by your doctor, then reducing dosage before stopping entirely within 5-7 days. You can also use oral or topical antibiotics such as amoxicillin, cefuroxime, and azithromycin for 5-10 days with or without decongestants if prescribed by your doctor.

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